FALL FINAL REVIEW




Earth Science Review Guide                                                  First (Fall) Semester

 

What follows is a list of the major ideas that we studied in first semester Earth Science.

 

The suggested way to use this list is to first read all of the objectives and look over the list of earth science terms.  As you read them, highlight those that seem difficult.  Spend little time with the objectives that you know, but return to the textbook to review the more difficult ones until you are comfortable with the information.  You are welcome to come in to ask for help with the content before and after school.  The final exam was created with this list of objectives in mind. 

 

CHAPTER 1      INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE

                1.  Earth Science Branches and the Scientific Method

·         Identify the branches of Earth Science, topics studied in each branch, and careers that relate to the branches.

·         Recognize the components of the scientific method used in a science investigation.

2.       Measurements

·         Be able to use the metric system and do conversions. (Page 741)

3.       Safety

·         Recognize safe and unsafe laboratory procedures when working alone or in groups. (Pages 732-733)

4.       Latitude, Longitude and Time Zones

·         Use latitude and longitude to determine specific locations.

·         Recognize that time across the United States varies according to established time zones.

5.       Topographic Maps

·         Use symbols and lines on a topographic map to interpret the landscape it represents.

 

Geology

Oceanography

Hydrology

Astronomy

Meteorology

Hydrosphere

Atmosphere

Geosphere

Biosphere

 

Scientific Method

Data

Hypothesis

Experiment

Variable

Control

Conclusion

Theory

Law

 

Metric System

Meter

Liter

Kilogram

Light Year

Volume

Weight

Mass

Density

Celsius

Longitude

Time zone

Latitude

Projection

Distortion

Mercator projection

International Date Line

Equator

Prime Meridian

 

Topography

Map

Globe

Topographic map

Map scale

Contour lines

Contour interval

Elevation

 

 


CHAPTER 2     MINERALS AND CHEMISTRY

1.       Chemistry

·         Differentiate between atoms, elements, compounds, and mixtures.

2.       Minerals

·         Describe the properties of minerals and how they are used for mineral identification.

·         Identify uses of ores and gemstones.

 

Mineral

Inorganic

 

Luster

Hardness

 

Moh’s Scale

Streak

 

Density

Crystal shape

 

Cleavage

Fracture

 Minerals Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=323


CHAPTER 3      ROCKS

1.       Rock Cycle

·         Identify three families of rocks and give the meaning of each name.

·         Explain how rocks go through a cycle of changes to become other rocks.

2.       Igneous Rocks

·         Discuss the formation of igneous rocks at the earth’s surface as well as below it.

·         Describe properties and uses of igneous rocks.

3.       Sedimentary Rocks

·         Compare the three ways sedimentary rocks form and give examples.

·         Describe the properties and uses of sedimentary rocks.

4.       Metamorphic Rocks

·         Describe the conditions and processes involved where existing rocks change into metamorphic rocks.

·         Describe the properties and uses of metamorphic rocks.

 

 

rocks

igneous processes

sedimentary processes

sediments

metamorphic processes

rock cycle

composition

 

texture

glassy

fine-grained

coarse-grained

extrusive

intrusive

 

igneous rock

      granite

      basalt

clastic sedimentary

      rock

          conglomerate

          sandstone

          shale

 

organic sedimentary

      rock

           limestone

           chalk

           coal

chemical sedimentary

      rock

           rock salt

           gypsum

metamorphic rock

      foliated

      nonfoliated

      shale turns into …

      granite turns into …

      limestone turns into …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Rocks Video Review:

Intrusive Igneous Rocks: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=325

Sedimentary Rocks: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=328

Metamorphic Rocks: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=329

CHAPTER 5      WEATHERING, SOIL, AND MASS MOVEMENTS

  1. Weathering

·         Understand Mechanical Weathering and how it is different from…

·         Understand Chemical Weathering and how it is different from…

  1. Soil

·         Review the major components of soil.

·         Describe how soil forms

3.     Mass Movements

·         The transfer of rock and material downhill is called mass movement

·         Review Frost Wedging and how it causes weathering

 

Mechanical weathing

Chemical Weathering

 

Regolith

Soil

Soil horizon

Mass movement

Rock fall

Rockslide

Frost wedging

 

 

Video Review Guides:

Weathering and Soils: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=326

Mass Wasting: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=327

CHAPTER 8     EARTHQUAKES AND EARTH’S INTERIOR

  1. Earthquakes

·         Discuss the cause and impact of earthquakes.

·         Discuss how scientists have learned about earthquakes and the earth’s interior by studying seismic waves.

  1. Earth’s Interior

·         Interpret a visual model of the earth’s interior and summarize how data is used to support the model.

 

fault

seismic waves

focus

epicenter

seismograph

seismogram

 

seismologist

Richter and Moment

     Magnitude scales

aftershock

liquefaction

earthquake patterns

crust

mantle

outer core

inner core

Moho

lithosphere

asthenosphere

pressure, temperature,

     and density changes

     as they relate to depths

     below Earth

Earthquake Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=320

Earth's Interior Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=314

 

CHAPTER 9     PLATE TECTONICS

  1. Continental Drift

·         Describe the evidence that supports the theory of continental drift.

  1. The Theory of Plate Tectonics

·         Discuss how convection currents relate to plate movements.

·         Relate plate movement to plate boundary types.

·         Relate plate boundary types to surface and subsurface features.

·         Discuss how plate boundaries relate to the location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains.

  1. Ocean Floor Spreading

·         Summarize the ocean-floor spreading processes that occur on and below the earth’s surface.

·         Identify the features created by ocean-floor spreading.

 

continental drift

Pangaea

plate tectonics

plate

divergent boundaries

seafloor spreading

oceanic ridge

 

convergent boundaries

subduction zones

trenches

island arcs

 

transform fault boundaries

rift valley

 

paleomagnetism

convective flow

hot spot

mantle plume

Plate Tectonics Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=316

Plate Dynamics Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=317

CHAPTER 10     VOLCANOES AND OTHER IGNEOUS ACTIVITY

  1. Volcanic Eruptions

·         Describe the characteristics of different types of lava and volcanic particles.

·         Explain the processes that shape volcanoes and how they cause the potential for volcanic hazards.

·         Identify the locations of major zones of earthquake and volcanic activity.

 

lava

magma

viscosity

volcano

 

vent

crater

lava flow

 

pyroclastic material

cinders

caldera

cinder cone

shield volcano

composite cone

 

worldwide

      volcanic patterns

 

Volcanoes Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=324

CHAPTER 11      MOUNTAIN BUILDING

  1. Rock Deformation

·         Explain the processes that form various folds and faults.

  1. Types of Mountains

·         Recognize several features and landforms that are the result of stress of the earth’s crust.

  1. Mountain Formation

·         Relate the formation of mountains and other features to folding, faulting and/or plate boundary processes..

 

deformation

stress

strain

tension

compression

shearing

fault

hanging wall

footwall

normal fault

reverse fault

thrust fault

strike-slip fault

 

folds

anticline

syncline

monocline

 

fault-block mountain

fold mountain

dome mountain

isostas

 

Mountain Building Video Review: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=318

Notes:

ĉ
Craig Beals,
Jan 12, 2010, 7:59 AM
ĉ
Craig Beals,
Jan 12, 2010, 7:59 AM
Comments