Spring FINAL REVIEW

 


Earth Science Review Guide                                                  Second (Spring) Semester

 

What follows is a list of the major ideas that we studied in second semester Earth Science.

 

The suggested way to use this list is to first read all of the objectives and look over the list of earth science terms.  As you read them, highlight those that seem difficult.  Spend little time with the objectives that you know, but return to the textbook to review the more difficult ones until you are comfortable with the information.  You are welcome to come in to ask for help with the content before and after school.  The final exam was created with this list of objectives in mind. 

 

CHAPTER 6  RUNNING WATER AND GROUNDWATER

  1. Water beneath the surface
    • Understand how water moves and is stored underground.
    • How is water taken up out of the ground for human use?
  2. Freshwater
    • How are freshwater reserves threatened by human pollution?

 

Water cycle

Aquifer

Permeability

Well

Transpiration

Groundwater

Spring

Artesian Well

 

CHAPTER 12  GEOLOGIC TIME

  1. Geologic Time Scale
    • Review and understand the parts of the Geologic time scale (p353)
  2. Fossils
    • What are fossils?
    • How do fossils form?
    • What do they tell us about the history of the Earth?
  3. Discovering Earth’s History
    • Explain relative dating.
    • Explain absolute dating.

 

Uniformitarianism

Radiocarbon dating

Unconformity

Eon

Relative dating

Law of superposition

Fossil

Era

Absolute dating

Principle of original horizontality

Radioactivity

Period

Radiometric dating

Half-life

Epoch

 

CHAPTER 13  EARTH’S HISTORY

  1. The Eras

·         What is an era?

·         How is each of the eras of the geologic time scale different?

·         Landmasses: Pangaea, Laurasia, Gondwana

 

CHAPTER 17  THE ATMOSPHERE

  1. Layers of the Atmosphere
    • Understand the properties of the layers and how they differ from each other.
    • What gasses are present in the atmosphere?
    • How do these gasses influence the weather and climate of the earth?
  2. Heating the Atmosphere
    • What causes the atmosphere to heat up and cool down?
    • Lab: “Which gets hotter, Land or Water?”

 

Ozone

Thermosphere

Spring Equinox

Convection

Albedo

Troposphere

Summer Solstice

Heat

Radiation

Isotherm

Stratosphere

Winter Solstice

Temperature

Reflection

 

Mesosphere

Autumnal Equinox

Conduction

Greenhouse Effect

 

 

CHAPTER 18  MOISTURE, CLOUDS, PRECIPITATION

  1. Water cycle

·         Know the different phases of water and what causes changes between the phases.

  1. Energy transfer

·         What is the difference between radiation, conduction, and convection?

  1. Clouds

·         What are the different cloud types?

·         What do the different cloud types tell us about the current weather?  Or the future weather (forecast)?

 

Precipitation

Sublimation

Orographic lifting

Cumulus

Evaporation

Deposition

Front

Stratus

Condensation

Humidity

Cirrus

Temperature Inversion

 

CHAPTER 19  AIR PRESSURE AND WIND

1.        Understanding Air Pressure

·         How do air masses move across the United States? (p534)

·         What type of weather is associated with High Pressure? Low Pressure?

2.        Wind

·         What causes wind?

·         What causes different areas of air pressure near the surface of the earth?

 

Air Pressure

Coriolis Effect

Anticyclone

Polar Easterlies

Barometer

Jet Stream

Trade Winds

Prevailing Wind

Pressure Gradient

Cyclone

Westerlies

El Nino

 

CHAPTER 20  WEATHER PATTERNS AND WIND

1.        Air Masses

·         How do air masses influence weather?

·         What affect does the sun have on air masses and wind?

 

Air Mass

Front

Warm Front

Cold Front

 

CHAPTER 21  CLIMATE

1.        Factors that affect climate

·         What are the factors that affect climate locally and globally?

 

Greenhouse Effect

Global Warming

 

CHAPTER 22  ORIGIN OF MODERN ASTRONOMY

1.        Sun, Earth and Moon System

·         What causes the seasons?

·         What are the two types of eclipses? What are the causes of each?

·         What causes tides?

 

Astronomy

Heliocentric

Revolution

Solar Eclipse

Geocentric

Rotation

Phases of the Moon

Lunar Eclipse

 

CHAPTER 25  BEYOND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

1.        Big Bang

·         What is the Big Bang?

·         What is the evidence for the Big Bang?

2.        Stars

·         What is Electromagnetic Radiation (EM)?

·         Understand how the elements are formed in stars.

 

Light-year

Nebulae

Black Hole

Galaxy

Big Bang Theory

 

Comments